Category Archives: Politics and International Relations

Neville Chamberlain: A Biography – a guest post from Robert Self

Posted by David Cota, Senior Marketing Coordinator

In this guest post, Professor Robert Self, author of Neville Chamberlain: A Biography and the editor of four volumes of the Neville Chamberlain Diary Letters reflects on the motivations and objectives behind his eight-year project on this much maligned and misunderstood politician and statesman.

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Neville ChamberlainFrom a purely personal perspective, the appearance of my 573 page biography of Neville Chamberlain represented a very satisfying culmination of an eight-year project which began with the publication of four volumes of Neville Chamberlain’s diary letters to his sisters, Hilda and Ida, written weekly from 1915 until shortly before his death in November 1940.

The first of these volumes was published by Ashgate in 2000 with the fourth volume covering the crucial period of Chamberlain’s premiership appearing in 2005. The full-scale biography followed in 2006. My acquaintanceship with the Chamberlain family, however, stretches back to 1975 when my doctoral research first introduced me to the riches contained in the Chamberlain family archives held at Birmingham University Library.

Having produced an edited volume of Austen Chamberlain’s diary letters to his sisters in 1996, my mind turned to the far more ambitious idea of conducting a similar exercise with those of his younger and more famous half-brother. This was always going to be a far more formidable undertaking. Neville was an extremely diligent correspondent, sending lengthy epistles to his sisters at least once a week giving extremely detailed accounts of events and the individuals involved in them. As such, it represents an almost continuous record of British high politics untouched by later efforts to sanitise or correct the historical record with the wisdom of hindsight. Moreover, because this confidential correspondence mattered so much to Chamberlain, in the intimate personal – almost confessional – confines of these letters he was truly able to be himself, sharing his secrets, unburdening himself of his emotions and displaying his strengths and weaknesses of character, his assumptions, prejudices, values and inclinations while he indulged his self-confessed ‘epistolary garrulity’.

Notwithstanding the obviously immense value of this historical record, finding a publisher prepared to give the diary letters the treatment they deserved appeared likely to be a major problem. Certainly, by any standard, this represented a formidable publishing challenge given that there are almost 1200 letters containing nearly 2,000,000 words, spanning a quarter of a century during which Chamberlain stood at the very heart of British politics. Moreover, while possible to omit some of the routine trivia, alongside the valuable political content it was essential to retain enough of his observations concerning the antics of his children and his passion for birdwatching, botany, entomology, gardening, fishing and shooting to reveal that more human side of Chamberlain’s personality which he deliberately obscured beneath a sternly austere and ostensibly humourless demeanour. In the event, I was extraordinarily fortunate to find in Ashgate a publisher who more than fulfilled my highest expectations in terms of both understanding the nature of the task and in the remarkable quality of the volumes produced. Precisely the same can be said about Ashgate’s handling of the Neville Chamberlain biography itself. For all this support and encouragement I owe a particular and very substantial debt of gratitude to Tom Gray.

A variety of factors persuaded me that a full-scale biography was the obvious final stage in my Chamberlain project. First, while editing the diary letters I had conducted extensive research in over 150 collections of private papers on both sides of the Atlantic, as well as exhaustive study in countless official files at The National Archive. As much interesting new material had to be discarded when writing the relatively brief introductory chapters to each volume, the answer seemed to be a full-scale biography. By basing the biography primarily on these contemporary records, I hoped to capture Chamberlain’s own authentic voice as he explains, justifies and rationalises unfolding events and his responses to them. Like Keith Feiling some 60 years earlier, the principal intention was not to excuse or condemn Chamberlain, but rather to ‘let N.C. speak for himself’ in order to understand more clearly why he acted as he did and what he hoped to achieve during a long and dedicated career of public service to his country.

The second motivating factor was essentially historiographical. Despite the fierce controversy which still surrounds Chamberlains reputation, Keith Feiling’s biography of Chamberlain was still regarded as the best and most complete account even though it had been published 60 years earlier and by the author’s own admission it was only of a ‘provisional character’ until other archival sources became available. Since its publication in 1946, there have been astonishingly few other attempts at a single volume biography and those which did appear added little to our understanding of this most enigmatic of politicians. The intention, therefore, was to produce the first comprehensive single volume account of the life, record and achievements of a 20th century politician and statesman of the first rank using all of the archival material available to scholars.

The final motivation was more personal in that I confess to a rankling sense of injustice at many of the less balanced verdicts on Chamberlain’s record – particularly from a vociferous post- or counter-revisionist school. The position adopted in the biography could be best described as that of a qualified ‘revisionist’. On one hand, Chamberlain is undoubtedly guilty of lamentable errors of judgement compounded at times by an unrelentingly fatuous optimism – particularly after March 1938. But on the other hand, there is equally little doubt that Chamberlain quite rightly grasped that Britain was trapped in a vulnerable and reactive position at the mercy of a complex inter-related web of strategic, military, economic, financial, industrial and electoral constraints over which he had little control in the short term. As a self-proclaimed ‘realist’, Chamberlain’s consistent response to this conundrum was thus to pursue what he called ‘the double policy’ of rearmament at a pace the economy could sustain combined with the quest for better relations with the dictators by redressing legitimate grievances. Or as he described his strategy to Lord Halifax on his return from Munich ‘we must hope for the best while preparing for the worst’.

In the event, Chamberlain’s loss of the premiership in May 1940 signalled the far greater loss of his credibility and reputation. As Churchill is once supposed to have quipped, ‘Poor Neville will come badly out of history. I know, I will write that history’. As David Dutton has demonstrated in his outstanding study of Chamberlain’s evolving reputation, this proved to be a remarkably shrewd prediction because for many years Churchill’s highly-coloured version of events held the field unchallenged and unchallengeable. This caricature of the 1930s painted in a compellingly simplistic monochrome of black and white, right or wrong, good versus evil, courage in ‘standing up to Hitler’ versus craven appeasement, still continues to hold sway in popular memory, in television dramas and (more depressingly) in historical texts even to this day.

As a result, Chamberlain remained a profoundly underrated, misjudged and misunderstood figure with his many achievements in the domestic sphere too easily overshadowed by the final three years of his life. Had he died in 1937 he would have gone down in history as a great peacetime minister – a radical but realistic social reformer, a supremely talented administrator and the driving force behind many of the National Governments under-estimated successes after 1931. Above all, in perhaps the most original contribution of this biography, a detailed analysis of Chamberlain’s period as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1931 to 1937 refutes much of the pervasive mythology surrounding this neglected and most woefully misunderstood period of his entire career. Contrary to the standard indictment, as Chancellor Chamberlain was not a passive mouthpiece for the blinkered views of his Treasury officials without the political will, imaginative vision or personal courage to do more than tinker impotently until the so-called ‘natural forces of recovery’ rescued Britain from the Great Depression. On the contrary, Chamberlain actively contributed to the development of innovative Treasury thinking to the extent that he can be regarded legitimately as the founder of a species of pre-Keynesian “managed economy” in Britain between the wars – particularly as the architect of a highly innovative brand of interventionist industrial and regional policy conceived as a fundamental solution to Britain’s long-term industrial problems.

For all the achievements, Chamberlain remains all too often the subject of vitriolic attack simply because perceptions of his long and varied career have been fundamentally blighted by the ultimate failure of his policy of appeasement during the last three years of his life. As he confessed to the Commons on the outbreak of war: ‘Everything I have worked for, everything that I have hoped for, everything that I have believed in during my public life, has crashed into ruins’. Unfortunately for Chamberlain, contemporaries and posterity have judged him accordingly. Yet the failure of appeasement is only one explanation for the personal venom so often injected into assessments of the man and his reputation. Ultimately, at the heart of the problem lies Chamberlain’s own quite deliberate attempt throughout his life to obscure the very existence of a deeper and more complex personality lurking behind the austerely forbidding persona. As Chamberlain’s PPS during the late 1930s, Alec Douglas-Home was absolutely correct when he later observed that his political master was ‘a rare complex person, half of him hidden from the world’. For all those excluded from the closed circle of family and a few real intimates, everything about the public face he presented to the world reinforced the impression that he was a man wholly devoid of instinctive warmth, sympathy and even humanity. As Harry Snell put it, his demeanour suggested that he had been ‘weaned on a pickle’. Or as a disgruntled Birmingham constituent is supposed once to have complained, ‘if you cut the bugger in half neither part would bleed’. Again, posterity has often uncritically followed where Chamberlain’s contemporaries led, by focusing far too much on the outwardly cold, smug and supposedly arrogant persona which, in Donald Watt’s view, makes it ‘extremely difficult to like Neville Chamberlain’.

Neville Chamberlain went to his grave in November 1940 absolutely confident that history would vindicate his policy and rehabilitate his reputation. Although this was by far the greatest miscalculation of his entire public career, my biography represents an attempt to at least partially redress the balance by explaining why he acted as he did and the limited range of policy options he confronted. In this respect, it is gratifying to note the biography was generally very well received by reviewers both at home and overseas. The European response is neatly encapsulated by Professor Antoine Capet of the University of Rouen in a lengthy review published in the French journal Cercles: Revue Pluridisciplinaire du Monde Anglophone:

Readers who are already familiar with the copious texts and notes which accompanied Robert Self’s superb edition of Neville Chamberlain’s Diaries will of course expect more than an exhaustive list of facts – and indeed what we have here is a magnificently argumentative interpretation … on top of a superbly authoritative chronicle of events in Chamberlain’s life.

Capet goes on to commend the ‘superb scholarly value’ of this study before concluding with the following verdict:

Since this cannot be the ‘definitive’ Biography, as there is no such notion, one wonders what may remain to be found by future biographers and one pities them. What makes it even more valuable and difficult to improve upon is that Robert Self gives extensive extracts from the Diary Letters which he has so competently edited. … The four volumes of Diary Letters and the Biography form a magnum opus which is likely to remain the state of the art on Neville Chamberlain for many years. Anybody interested in the inter-war years will find the book a capital addition to the existing literature … There is no doubt that this is scholarly academic writing at its best.

Given the generally far more hostile response to Neville Chamberlain in North America, it is encouraging to note that reaction has been equally positive across the Atlantic. Professor Larry Witherall is typical when he notes in the Journal of Modern History (2008, 80.3) that this ‘ exhaustively researched, immensely rich and layered assessment’ offers ‘a measured yet definitive assessment of this most misunderstood British figure’ and that, as such, it is ‘ an impressive and important study’.

The reception given to the biography and Diary Letters by specialist British scholars has been equally favourable. In his review of the Chamberlain biography in History ( June 2007), Professor Andrew Thorpe noted:

Chamberlain was always going to need a very good historian to be his biographer; but, in Robert Self, he has assuredly found one. It is not the least of Self’s achievements that he covers all areas of Chamberlain’s activities convincingly, with a very clear grasp of the secondary literature allied to unusually deep and thorough empirical research on a wide range of archival sources. … Thus, he appears to be as much at home when writing on, say, banking in Birmingham as he is on housing, economic policy or late 1930s diplomacy. The product is an authoritative book that is also highly readable. Self’s portrait of Chamberlain is sympathetic, but far from uncritical. … the context in which Chamberlain was operating is always noticed, and the book never falls into the trap of many political biographies, of facing the individual so much that it lacks wider perspective.

Thorpe thus concludes with the verdict that ‘this volume will rightly stand for many years as one of the very best biographies of a twentieth-century prime minister’. Or as Dr Jeremy Smith comments, Chamberlain’s faith that he would be vindicated by history ‘has at last been rewarded with the appearance of Dr Self’s monumental, and in some ways magnificent, biography… filling a remarkably long-standing lacuna in modern British political biography’. Parliamentary History 26.2, 2007).

While it is obviously pleasing to record that such positive comments were typical of the general response, whether any of this will prompt a more general reappraisal of Chamberlain’s overall reputation remains to be seen. It is at least encouraging to note that there has been some shift in professional opinion generally. In the most extensive academic poll designed to rank 20th Century British Prime Ministers in 2004 it was significant that while political scientists placed Chamberlain in 19th place out of 20, historians ranked him in 14th place. When we turn to the views of the layman and the writers of popular novels and TV dramas, however, there is less scope for optimism. Churchill’s prediction has been fully vindicated. ‘Poor Neville’ has come badly out of history – and, alas, I fear it is likely to remain that way.

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Neville Chamberlain: A Biography was identified by our editors as having played a significant part in the building and reputation of our publishing programme. To see the full list of titles chosen by our editors visit, History Editors’ Choices.

Ashgate Critical Development Studies series – a call for proposals

We are calling for proposals for a new series: Ashgate Critical Development Studies

The series editors are Henry Veltmeyer, Saint Mary’s University, Canada, Elisa van Waeyenberge, SOAS University of London, Paul Bowles, University of Northern British Columbia, Canada and Salvatore Babones, University of Sydney

The current multi-faceted global crisis cries out for a more critical, proactive approach to the study of international development.

The crisis comes at the end of three decades of uneven capitalist development and neoliberal globalization that have devastated the economies and societies, and the livelihoods and lives, of people across the world, especially in the developing societies of the Global South.

The challenge of providing the study of international development with a critical edge has become the project of a broad and increasingly global network of activist development scholars who are concerned and engaged in using their research to help effect transformative social change that might lead to a better world. This series will provide a forum and outlet for the publication of books in the broad interdisciplinary field of critical development studies – to generate new knowledge that can be used to promote transformative change and alternative development.

The editors of the series welcome the submission of original manuscripts that focus on issues of concern to the growing worldwide community of activist scholars in this field.

Critical Development Studies (CDS) encompasses a broad array of issues ranging from concerns about the sustainability of the environment and livelihoods, the political economy of social inequality and world capitalism, alternative models of local and community-based development, the landgrabbing and resource-grabbing dynamics of extractive capital, the class dynamics of political and economic power, and the political sociology of social change and social movements, to the dynamics of resistance and the contours of the contemporary class struggle, and the capitalism and imperialism of the 21st century.

For more information on how to submit a book proposal to the series, please contact Kirstin Howgate, at khowgate@ashgate.com.

Reflections on elections!

Posted by Sarah Stilwell, Senior Marketing Executive

Over the coming weeks you may find yourself musing over some of the UK’s electoral traditions: Why do we vote in schools? What is the social meaning of secret balloting? What is lost if we vote by mail or computers rather than on election day? What is the history and role of drinking and wagering in elections? How does the electoral cycle generate the theatre of election night and inaugurations?

Ritual and rhythm in electoral systemsGraeme Orr’s newly published book Ritual and Rhythm in Electoral Systems answers these, and many more questions, and reminds us that elections are key public events which, in a secular society, are the only real coming together of the social whole.

Elegantly written and meticulously researched, this book captures the way we experience voting and elections – as a ritualised and recurring event – not only in the UK, but also in the US and Australia.

Graeme Orr is Professor of Law at the University of Queensland, Australia and is the International Editor of the Election Law Journal.

His book is published as part of Ashgate’s series: Election Law, Politics, and Theory

A selection of reviews of Ritual and Rhythm in Electoral Systems:

‘This is a masterly book – imaginative in conception, brilliantly executed, and above all beautifully written. Professor Orr is not only one of our best election lawyers, but also one of our most elegant and accessible legal writers. His original and skilful account of the “ritual and rhythms” of election day is both a work of great scholarship and a compelling read.’   Keith Ewing, author of The Cost of Democracy

‘Graeme Orr has produced a brilliant and compelling account of the role of ritual in elections. This book should be required reading for constitutional lawyers and electoral administrators who will come to understand that the act of voting is but one moment in a far bigger cultural drama.’   Stephen Coleman, author of How Voters Feel

‘In this important book, Graeme Orr goes a long way to helping us understand why elections matter so much. Beyond the mere casting and counting of votes, they consist of practices and processes that are imbued with deep meaning. This account of how the law provides a canvas upon which that meaning may be painted is masterful.’   Andrew Geddis, author of Election Law in New Zealand

‘Departing from the usual demographic-quantitative accounts, Graeme Orr offers an engaging, thoroughly researched interpretation of the tenor and cadence of the rituals of electoral politics, rituals redolent with intriguing symbolism and meaning.’   Ron Hirschbein, author of Voting Rites

‘In a radical departure from the usual writing about elections, Graeme Orr offers a fascinating sociology of elections, unmasking them as important rituals with deep social and affective significance. He persuades us that elections are not just about rules and numbers, winners and losers; they also operate on a social-systems level as indispensable occasions for political communion and the renewal of democratic community.’   Lisa Hill, University of Adelaide, Australia and author of Compulsory Voting: For and Against

‘Ritual and Rhythm in Electoral Systems brings an eye-catching “High Church” flourish, and a near sacerdotal intensity, to the complex field of comparative electoral law, canvassing its rites and elaborate ceremonies with an eye that is as much anthropological as it is theological. The result is a profound study in what might be called the “jurispathology” of everyday electoral life. Judiciously combining theory and practice, as well as doctrine and context, Orr’s elegantly written and meticulously researched book is sure to attract a wide readership in law, politics, and government.’    William MacNeil, Griffith University, Australia and author of Lex Populi

Contemporary African Politics

Posted by Michael Drapper, Marketing Executive

Today, as Nigeria goes to the polls for its fifth quadrennial general elections since the 1999 return to democracy, it is clear that the country, and Africa as a whole, is in a period of rapid change. Now, as in Nigeria, some two-thirds of countries on the continent have embarked on comprehensive democratic transitions, in diverse forms, with varying degrees of maturation. Crucially, there is broad recognition among African elites that participatory and democratic processes are standards or benchmarks for judging them, as shown by the establishment of the African Union, the New Partnership for African Development, and the African Peer Review Mechanism. The improved political climate reflects important economic and social changes as well. Since the mid-1990s, economic growth in the majority of African countries has been strong, surpassing 5% per year in fifteen countries on the continent. For a number of these, higher growth has been accompanied by diversification of their economies and exports.

Africans actors deserve the credit for much of the observable change. Western aid agencies, Chinese mining companies and UN peacekeepers have played their part, but the continent’s main driver of change appears to be its own people. Across the continent a palpable sense of hope abounds from rural to urban communities and across the generations. The ability of governments to play a mediatory role between global capitalism and the domestic, intra-state arena is being transformed, as states exhibit increasing capacities and resources as well as different levels of social and political motivation. While it is true that most African states are responding to the external pressures of the International Financial Institutions, their governments still bear responsibility for promoting an approach to development and on this they appear to be doing a little better, especially in economic management and striking peace deals.

Whether what we are witnessing is a third liberation of the continent – the first from colonialism, the second from autocratic indigenous rule, and now something far different – remains to be seen. Understanding the evolving reality is the central aim of Ashgate’s new Contemporary African Politics series. This series seeks original approaches to furthering our understanding of the ensuing changes in contemporary Africa. It will look at the full range and variety of African politics in the 21st century, covering the changing nature of African society, gender issues, security, economic prosperity and poverty, to the development of relations between African states, external organisations and between leaders and the people they would govern. The series aims to publish work by senior scholars as well as the best new researchers.

If you have a proposal you would like to submit for consideration, please email Rob Sorsby, Senior Commissioning Editor, at RSorsby@ashgate.com. For more information on submitting a proposal, please visit www.ashgate.com/authors.

Ethnicity democracy and citizenship in africaReinventing development

Browse our catalogues online…

Online versions of our printed catalogues are available to browse. Please follow the links below to your subject(s) of interest.

Most of our catalogues are available in two formats, ‘eCatalogue’ which is a ‘page turning’ document, and standard PDF which loads in Acrobat Reader. Both versions include links to full book details on our website, for further information and for ease of ordering.

Don’t forget, ALL orders on our website receive 10% discount.

Gender in a Global/Local World

Posted by Michael Drapper, Marketing Executive

International Women’s Day has been observed since the early 1900s, a turbulent period marked by rapid industrialization, huge population growth, and the rise of new radical political ideologies. At its inception International Women’s Day and its activists campaigned for women’s right to work, vote, be trained, to hold public office and to end discrimination. Over time these inequalities, to a great or lesser extent, have lessened with women’s rights improving almost universally.

But as the world gets smaller, new challenges to gender equality have come to the fore. The Gender in a Global/Local World series critically explores the uneven and often contradictory ways in which global processes and local identities come together. Much has been and is being written about globalization and responses to it but rarely from a critical, historical, gendered perspective. Yet, these processes are profoundly gendered albeit in different ways in particular contexts. The changes in social, cultural, economic and political institutions and practices alter the conditions under which women and men make and remake their lives. New spaces have been created – economic, political, social – and previously silent voices are being heard.  North-South dichotomies are being undermined as increasing numbers of people and communities are exposed to international processes through migration, travel, and communication, even as marginalization and poverty intensify for many in all parts of the world.  The series features monographs and collections which explore the tensions in a ‘global/local world’, and includes contributions from all disciplines in recognition of the fact that no single approach can capture these complex processes.

Gender and ConflictRecent volumes in this series include Gender and Conflict, which examines how cognition and behaviour, agency and victimization, are gendered beyond the popular stereotypes. Conducting in-depth case studies into such topics as women’s violence and gender relations in the Israeli Defence Forces and the role of female combatants in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in the armed conflict in Sri Lanka, the book offers insight into worlds that are new and often surprising and unconventional.

When care work goes globalWhen Care Work Goes Global provides an innovative view on the new international division of reproductive labour, demonstrating how and why domestic and care work has developed into the largest occupation sector for female migrants worldwide, encompassing not only migration movements from the global South to the global North but also those from rural to urban areas.

Gender integration in nato military forcesLana Obradovic’s Gender Integration in NATO Military Forces examines twenty-four NATO member states, asking why states abandon their policies of exclusion and promote gender integration, admitting women into their military forces, in such a way that women’s military participation becomes an integral part of military force.

As the world continues to change the Gender in a Global/Local World series highlights the need for academic research to keep up, exploring the new and continued gendered tensions and conflicts between global and local cultures.

To read more about this series please visit www.ashgate.com/GGLW, where you can also read reviews and excerpts of the books, or visit our Gender and Politics page to see more Ashgate titles on the subject.

A human factors approach to hostile intent and counter-terrorism

Hostile Intent and Counter TerrorismWhile there is much research into counter-terrorism, until now there has not been a single source that deals with the issue from a human factors and psychology perspective. Hostile Intent and Counter-Terrorism fills that gap. Part of the Ashgate Human Factors in Defence series, the book is of value not only to researchers in the field but also security stakeholders at policy and practitioner level.

‘In this insightful and incisive text, Stedmon, Lawson and their many colleagues and co-contributors grapple with one of the most pressing issues for our species and our survival on this planet. They undertake to show how the integration of people and technology is at once the genesis of and potential solution to the vexed problems of contemporary asymmetric conflict, expressed through terrorism. But more than this, their crucial collective deliberations mandate that we consider what our future society can and should look like. These are issues at the very heart of the human enterprise. Thus, while both a timely and important text for the declared central concern for counter-terrorism and the place of human factors and ergonomics in that struggle, their work forces us to examine the inherent sub-text which asks and addresses persistent and perennial questions about the individual and their place in a communal and technologically-driven society. Accessible to the general reader, yet of great value to the involved professional, this text is one that must be widely read in order that we understand what threats surround us and what avenues we all possess to resolve them.’   Peter A. Hancock, University of Central Florida, USA

‘This book has an important contribution to make to those seeking to develop counter-terrorism policy and practices informed by evidence-based scholarship. It contains a diverse set of reflections from around the world, inspired by a group of researchers who initially came together to consider ways of developing robust, reliable and ethical ways of detecting the covert activities of terrorists in crowded places. This book illustrates, in its scale and scope, the size and complexity of the challenge.’   Tristram Riley-Smith, University of Cambridge, UK

Hostile Intent and Counter-Terrorism is edited by Alex Stedmon, Coventry University and Glyn Lawson, The University of Nottingham. You can find out more about the book on the Ashgate website, where you can also read the preface from Matt Jones.

Contents:  Foreword, Don Harris; Preface, Matt Jones; Hostile intent and counter-terrorism: strategic issues and the research landscape, Alex Stedmon and Glyn Lawson. Part 1 Conceptualising Terrorism: The role of fear in terrorism, Alex Braithwaite; Understanding terrorism through criminology? Merging crime control and counter-terrorism in the UK, Pete Fussey; Analysing the terrorist brain: neurobiological advances, ethical concerns and social implications, Valentina Bartolucci; Ethical issues in surveillance and privacy, Ron Iphofen. Part 2 Deception and Decision-Making: Non-verbal cues to deception and their relationship to terrorism, Dawn L. Eubanks, Ke Zhang and Lara Frumkin; Deception detection in counter-terrorism, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal and Samantha Mann; A field trial to investigate human pheromones associated with hostile intent, Peter Eachus, Alex Stedmon and Les Baillie; On the trail of the terrorist: a research environment to simulate criminal investigations, Alexandra L. Sandham, Thomas C. Ormerod, Coral J. Dando and Tarek Menacere. Part 3 Modelling Hostile Intent: Safety and security in rail systems: drawing from the prevention of railway suicide and trespass to inform security interventions, Brendan Ryan; Tackling financial and economic crime through strategic intelligence management, Simon Andrews, Simon Polovina, Babak Akhgar, Andrew Staniforth, Dave Fortune and Alex Stedmon; Competitive adaptation in militant networks: preliminary findings from an Islamist case study, Michael Kenney, John Horgan, Cale Horne, Peter Vining, Kathleen M. Carley, Mia Bloom and Kurt Braddock; Evaluating emergency preparedness: using responsibility models to identify vulnerabilities, Gordon Baxter and Ian Sommerville. Part 4 Sociocultural Factors: Unintended consequences of the ‘War on Terror’: home-grown terrorism and conflict-engaged citizens returning to civil society, John Parkinson and Andrew Staniforth; Parasites, energy and complex systems: generating novel intervention options to counter recruitment to suicide terrorism, Mils Hills and Ashwin Mehta; Terrorist targeting of schools and educational establishments, Emma Bradford and Margaret A. Wilson; Female suicide terrorism as a function of patriarchal societies, Tanya Dronzina. Part 5 Strategies and Approaches for Counter-Terrorism: Designing visible counter-terrorism interventions in public spaces, Ben Dalton, Karen Martin, Claire McAndrew, Marialena Nikolopoulou and Teal Triggs; A macro-ergonomics perspective on security: a rail case study, Rose Saikayasit, Alex Stedmon and Glyn Lawson; Deception and speech: a theoretical overview to inform future research, Christin Kirchhübel, David M. Howard and Alex Stedmon; Evaluating counter-terrorism training using behavioural measures theory, Joan H. Johnston and V. Alan Spiker. Part 6 Future Directions: Hostile intent and counter-terrorism: future research themes and questions, Alex Stedmon and Glyn Lawson. Index.